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锁艺译丛(5) - 痕迹鉴定 - 破坏性强开

民用锁艺 2012-2-6 14:39 6083人浏览 41人回复
原作者: asdasd 收藏 分享 邀请
摘要

FORCIBLE ENTRY Forcible Entry (or forced entry) is a non-covert method of entry characterized by damage to or destruction of a lock, safe, or surrounding objects, such as a door, window, or wall. I ...

FORCIBLE ENTRY

Forcible Entry (or forced entry) is a non-covert method of entry characterized by damage to or destruction of a lock, safe, or surrounding objects, such as a door, window, or wall. It is by far the most common method of entry and is frequently used by law enforcement and military personnel for rapid entry to a residence or facility. As you might have guessed, there are many ways to destroy things. Techniques are classified by their method of destruction in terms of the physics of the operation but often overlap and complement one another. All destructive techniques use energy or force to damage, displace, weaken, or destroy components. Once components of a lock, safe, door, window, or wall lose structural or molecular integrity their ability to resist compromise is considerably reduced. The general categories of Forcible Entry are: chemicals, compression, impact, shearing, temperature, tension, and torsion.

破坏性强开

破坏性强开,是一种通过不可逆的损坏或者损毁锁具,保险柜,或者是门,窗,墙等防护设施的入室方法。这是一种最普遍的入室方法,是一种执法部门和军事人员经常使用的快速进入住宅和设施场所的方法。你也许会想,破坏东西的方法多着了。这种技术从它们如何操作而进行物理破坏的方法来进行分类,但几乎每一项技术间都是相辅相成的,而不是独立运用的。所有的破坏手段都是通过使用高能量或暴力来损坏,移位,削弱甚至毁灭零部件。当锁具,保险箱,门,窗,墙等的部件失去了结构上或成分上原来的本质,它们的防御能力就会大大降低。常见的破坏性强开方法有:化学腐蚀,挤压,冲击,剪切,高温,拉伸,扭曲等。

While the techniques discussed might seem advanced, the majority are rather simple when put in perspective; doors are kicked in, padlock shackles are cut, locks are drilled, et cetera. Techniques are categorized to help the investigator identify, define, and study new attacks. While tool designs differ greatly the tool marks and trace they leave behind may help investigators quickly identify the techniques used to gain entry.

这些技术说起来似乎挺先进,但在客观上其原理是非常简单的;门可以被踢开,挂锁的锁钩可以被切开,门锁会被钻开等等。这样的技术通常被分类,以助于调查人员来识别,确认和研究新型的破坏技术。而使用工具的巨大差异,使得入室的后留下的印迹可以快速的被调查人员辨认。


FORCIBLE ENTRY PRINCIPLES

Chemicals are used to affect the molecular structure of components. Chemicals, namely acids, can corrode, disintegrate, or dissolve components. Like temperature, chemicals often leave components vulnerable to other attacks.

破坏性强开基本原理

化学方法主要影响部件的分子结构,化学药剂,如酸类,可以腐蚀,分解甚至溶解部件。和高温一样化学处理通常是其他破坏方法的前序工作。

Compression is the use of pressure against a component in complementary directions. Essentially, the opposite of tension. It causes distortion, compaction, or breakage of components. Compression is most often used to reduce the strength of materials so that other methods can be used.

挤压是利用压强施加在和部件互补的方向上来进行破坏。本质上来说,是相反的拉伸。这样的方法会导致部件变形,被压缩,或直接破损。挤压通常用于削弱材料的强度,以便之后继续破坏工作。

Impact is the use of pressure and shock against a component. Striking and explosives are most common. Impact has a wide variety of results including fracturing, breakage, deformation, and compression. Some methods use impact to retract the locking bolt, most of which are destructive. Explosives are one of the most dangerous methods of Forcible Entry and use has dwindled with time as safer alternatives, such as drilling, have become popular.

冲击是利用剧烈震荡的压力来损毁部件。常用的方法是敲打和爆破。冲击力产生的结果是较难预料的,包括:碎裂,破损,变形或者被压缩。个别方法利用冲击力来使锁闸缩回,但大多数都会令材料解体。爆破则是最危险的一种破坏性强开方法,而且随着现在越来越多的安全方法,其使用也越来越少,例如钻孔,变得越来越流行!

Shearing is the use of pressure on a component placed between two edges. Cutting, chopping, and drilling are included in this category. Drilling is the most popular method of destructive safecracking and removal of locks by a locksmith. In general, drilling is probably the easiest, fastest method of Forcible Entry.

剪切是将部件至于两刀刃间进行分离。而切割,削砍和钻孔同属本类别。钻孔是锁匠最常用于撬开保险柜和拆除锁芯的常用方法。通常来说,钻孔也许是最简单快捷的破坏性强开方法!


Extreme temperature can be used to affect the molecular structure of components. High temperatures can vaporize, burn, melt, or re-temper components. Re-tempering can leave components soft or brittle, thus vulnerable to many other attacks. Low temperatures are less common, but can be used for similar purposes.

极端的高温可以用来影响部件的分子结构。高温可以使部件,气化,燃烧,熔化,软化!使部件回火能令其软化,易碎,使其在之后的破坏里更容易破损。相比之下,低温处理则不多见,但作用是相似的。

Tension is the use of pressure on a component in opposite directions. Stretching, pulling, prying, bending, or ripping are included in this category.

拉伸是向部件施加相反的拉力。延展,拉扯,撬,弯曲,撕裂属于此类别。

Torsion is the use of rotational pressure (torque) on a component. Twisting and torque and included in this category. Causes shearing, compression, and deformation of components.

扭曲是在部件上施加旋转的扭力。通常使部件被切断,压缩和变形,扭转和扭曲同属于此类别。

Forcible Entry is fairly straightforward in terms of method of entry, so the focus is on tool mark identification. The forensic locksmith must be wary of destructive techniques used as a method of hiding covert or surreptitious entry. A thorough investigation will reveal covert techniques and can potentially rule out Forcible Entry as the method of entry due to improbable direction, angle, or position of tool marks.

破坏性强开可以说是入室方法的分类中一个非常直白的术语,所以其重点应该放在甄别各种工具所留下的印迹。


TRACE EXPERTISE
痕迹鉴定


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The most common attack against padlocks is cutting the shackle, either in half or clean off. Almost all low to medium security non-shrouded padlocks are susceptible to this attack. This attack is a form of shearing, and the two edges of the bolt cutter are clearly seen in the displacement of the shackle material.
最常用于破坏挂锁的的方法是剪断锁钩,不是被剪成两半就是被全部剪掉。几乎所有中至低安防等级的挂锁都容易受到此类破坏。这种破坏方式是剪切的的一种,而且在锁钩被剪处的材料位移形态可以清楚地分辨出剪切工具的两片刀刃。


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A closer examination of the tool mark reveals that a red substance is present in the area where the bolt cutter was used. This could be a variety of things; paint, dirt, grease, or rust. We might be able to match this material to the tool if a bolt cutter is found in a suspect's possessions.
对工具留下的剪切痕迹作进一步的检验发现,一种红色的物质出现在被剪切的区域。这有可能是各种各样的东西;油漆,尘土,润滑油脂或锈迹。如果在嫌疑犯的所有物中能发现剪切工具的话,我们也许可以在其工具上找到相应的材料!


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Drilling, a form of shearing, is the most common method of Forcible Entry against all types of locks. It is frequently used by locksmiths to remove locks when they cannot be opened non-destructively. In this photo, the plug of a KIK cylinder has been drilled at the shear line, allowing the plug to freely rotate.
钻孔,剪切的一种,是对付所有锁具最常用的方法。锁匠经常用于拆除不能技术开启的锁具。在图片中,一个KIK锁芯在切线处被钻孔,以便让锁芯自由的转动。


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On the Investigation chapter we discuss the need to tape any openings in locks recovered at the crimescene. In the photo, a large amount of metal is present inside the lock, a product of drilling. This material is preserved because it may contain evidence useful to the investigation, such as shards of a broken drill bit.
在调查取证的章节里我们曾介绍过要用胶布对在犯罪现场找到的锁具对其所有的孔洞进行密封。在图片中,大量由钻孔产生的金属碎屑出现在锁的内部。这些碎屑应该要妥善保管,因为它可能含有调查所需的有用证据,例如钻头崩裂的细小尖锐碎屑。


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Drills are much like firearms in terms of Trace Expertise. Bullets fired from a gun have striae based on the barrel used; the same goes for drill bits used in Forcible Entry. In the photo, the spiral striae left by the drill bit can clearly be seen in the plug of the lock.
钻孔的痕迹鉴定和枪支的相似。在枪里射出的子弹带有枪管留下的条状印迹。而被钻的孔里也会留下强开时钻头留下的印迹。在图片中,可以清楚地看到锁芯里的由钻头留下的螺旋状印迹。


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Impact is a versatile method of Forcible Entry that is extremely effective against windows, doors, and walls. In the photo, a padlock has been hammered until the shackle broke. The direction of the break can tell us what angle it was being struck from. Additional tool marks will likely be found on the body of the padlock.
冲击是破坏门窗,墙壁极为有效的方法。在图片中,一把挂锁的锁钩被锤击至断裂。沿着破损的角度我们可以得知撞击力来源的位置。而在锁体上通常也可找出额外的工具印迹。


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In this photo, the body of the padlock shows tool marks in places where the hammer impacted the lock. The crescent shaped marks are numerous and can be measured to determine the size and shape of the hammer used. At least three different points of impact are visible.
在图片中,锁体上的的印迹显示了锤子是从哪个方向对锁撞击的。无数月牙形的印迹可以在测算后得知嫌疑人使用的是何种尺寸和形状的锤头。在此锁上,至少可以辨认出3处不同的撞击点。


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Heavy damage to the face or keyway of the lock can mean many things. A thorough investigation of tool marks, including angles and positions, helps to reveal how entry was accomplished. In this photo the keyway has been considerably widened and gouged so a tool can be inserted, probably a screwdriver or chisel.
锁的正面或匙路的严重受损可能蕴含了不少信息。对工具印迹的彻底分析(包括角度和位置),有助于了解强开始如何完成的。在图片中,匙路被相当严重的被挖凿和变宽,所以所使用的工具有可能是螺丝刀或凿子。


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In addition to damage to the keyway, the upper pin chambers have been completely sheared off, leaving the plug and broken cylinder free to rotate in the lock. This attack appears to be torsion applied counter-clockwise to the plug through the use of a screwdriver.
除此之外,匙路的上珠孔完全被折断,只留下可以在锁套内自由旋转的锁芯。这种破坏手段显然是使用插入锁芯的螺丝刀施加逆时针方向的扭力所造成的。


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The pins inside this lock show heavy damage from where the screwdriver or chisel was forced into the keyway. Examination of what is left of the tip of the pin shows no indication of covert entry techniques. Because of the force used, tool marks on the pins are rather distinct and may later be used to link suspects to the crime.
这把锁中的珠子朝向工具插入的一面被严重损毁。检查珠子顶部的留下的印迹,并没有显示技术型开启的痕迹。因为工具的使用力度,使得使得柱子上的印迹异常的明显,而且之后也许能联系上可疑的案件。


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European profile cylinders are held in place by a screw that extends through the center of the cylinder. Because the cam is beneath this point, it is the thinnest part of the lock and thus the easiest to break. In this photo, a european profile cylinder has been snapped in half using common hand tools.
插芯锁使用一颗横穿锁芯中部的螺丝进行固定。因为凸轮就在下方,所以造成此处是全锁最薄弱的地方,很容易被折断。在图片中,一把被普通手用工具掰成两截插芯锁。


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The basis of this attack is that there is enough of the cylinder extending through the door, as little as a few millimeters, and a tool used to grab and apply force to the lock. In this photo, tool marks can be seen where the tool was used to grab the front of the lock.
这种破坏方法的应用其实基于插芯锁突出门面只需几毫米,就能被工具加紧并向锁具施加力量。在图片里,工具的印迹可以在锁芯被夹住得地方发现。


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The cam of the lock can also be examined to determine which way the lock was snapped. This is generally not important, but the lock may have been snapped at an angle that is impossible when the door is closed, indicating fraud or misdirection from the real method of entry.
对锁具凸轮的检验可以得知破坏的方向。通常来说这点不是太重要,但是在门关上的时候,锁的折断可能是带有角度的,这可以显示出真正的破坏方法。


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Many destructive attacks against low security padlocks break the shackle because, relative to the body, it is the weakest component. In this photo, the padlock shackle is broken in two places, with one piece being stuck beneath the locking bolt.
多数破坏低等级挂锁的的方法是破坏锁钩,因为和锁体相比他是最脆弱的部分。在图片中,挂锁的锁钩被弄成两截,另以截仍然卡在锁体内。


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A thorough examination of both the shackle and the padlock body helps to identify the specific technique used. In this photo, the body of the padlock shows excessive distortion in the form of twisting, indicative of extreme torsion being applied to the padlock body.
对锁体和锁钩的仔细检查有助于判定特定的破坏方法。在图片中,锁体的扭曲程度上严重变形,显示出施加在锁体上的极大扭力。


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Tool marks for the torsion tool are found on the edges of the padlock. Marks appear to be rather fresh, thus the most likely candidates for the attack in question.
在锁体的边缘发现扭力工具留下的印迹。印迹看上去非常新鲜,因此较容易判定出破坏的方式。


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A closer inspection of the tool mark shows a series of parallel teeth marks, probably from the use of a plumber's wrench or tongue-and-groove pliers. Marks can be used in tool mark comparisons done with tools found in a suspect's posessions.
放大后的检验,可见一系列平行的齿纹,有可能来自管钳,会其他靠钳齿来抓牢工件并旋转的钳子。这些印迹可以和在嫌疑人处发现的工具作比对。


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Simulating lockpicking is common in insurance fraud or when the insurance holder is worried about coverage. These people rarely understand lockpicking and just jam a screwdriver in the lock to make marks. In most cases, material removal and tool marks are present at the front of the cylinder but not past the first or second pin.
模拟技术型开启常见于欺诈保险或者投保人担心受保的额度。但这些人并不了解开锁的原理,而只是插一个螺丝刀在锁中来制造印迹。在大多数的此类案件里,通常都是在前面的珠子上发现磨损和工具的印迹,一般不会超过2-3颗。


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The pins in simulated lockpicking will have a large amount of material removal and tool marks that are not consistent with any type of covert entry, including lockpicking or key bumping. Marks will usually not be found on the pins in the back of the lock, too.
摹仿技术型开启的珠子会有大量的磨损还有和技术型开启工具不对应得印迹(包括单钩开启或撞匙开启)。而深入锁芯的珠子通常是没有磨损印迹的。


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Chemicals are powerful because they can fundamentally alter metals to leave them vulnerable to many other attacks. In this case, brass pins are dark red/brown because of NO2 fumes released when concentrated nitric acid contacted the brass components. Nitric acid has the effect of eating away the copper in brass.
化学处理的作用是非常强大的,因为它可以从本质上改变金属,使它们在后续的破坏中变得非常脆弱。这里,因为受到浓缩硝酸所释放的二氧化氮的腐蚀,使得黄铜珠子变成深红棕色。硝酸可以腐蚀黄铜里铜原子。


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A closer examination can confirm the use of nitric acid by identifying the trace left by the chemical reaction between nitric acid and brass. The scattered blue particles are cupric nitrate and zinc nitrate, a byproduct of the chemical reaction.
放大后的检验,可由硝酸和黄铜的反应产物证实硝酸的使用。略带蓝色的部分是硝酸铜和硝酸锌,一种化学反应后的产物。


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